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Analysis of Fluid Loading Protocols Research for Spaceflight
Pages: 258-265
Year: Issue:  3
Journal: Space Medicine & Medical Engineering

Keyword:  astronautfluid loadingplasma volumeorthostatic intolerance;
Abstract: The decrease in plasma volume caused by the head ward fluid shift in space flight is an important cause of post-flight orthostatic intolerance of astronauts.Oral rehydration(fluid loading)prior to re-entry into the earth’s atmosphere has become a standard operational procedure in U.S.and Russian space missions.In this paper,the changes of body fluid and plasma volume of astronauts after space flight missions,the fluid loading protocols before returning to earth and research progress for US/Russia were reviewed,and the similarities and differences between US and Russian protocols were compared.Both the United States and Russia used the isotonic/approximately isotonic saline solution to execute fluid loading countermeasure and the volume of the solution was determined by the weight of the astronaut.The Russian protocol was mainly targeted for long-term missions and the Soyuz cosmonauts,and the objective was to counter the post-flight orthostatic intolerance.However,the US protocol was mainly targeted for short-term missions and space shuttle astronauts,and the objective was not only to counter the post-flight orthostatic intolerance but also to prevent loss of consciousness induced by+Gz acceleration during re-entry which may affect the astronauts’ operation.According to the characteristics of the re-entry phase of long term space flight missions at home and abroad,some analysis were presented on the beverage configuration and implementation protocols of fluid loading.Moreover,the rationality and feasibility of the proposed protocols were preliminarily verified by aground trial.
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