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The Immune System, Cytokines, and Biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Author(s): 
Pages: 194-204
Year: Issue:  2
Journal: Neuroscience Bulletin

Keyword:  Autism Spectrum DisorderCytokineImmune system;
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder(ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental condition characterized by variable impairments in communication and social interaction as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors.Heterogeneity of presentation is a hallmark. Investigations of immune system problems in ASD, including aberrations in cytokine pro?les and signaling, have been increasing in recent times and are the subject of ongoing interest. With the aim of establishing whether cytokines have utility as potential biomarkers that may de?ne a subgroup of ASD,or function as an objective measure of response to treatment, this review summarizes the role of the immune system, discusses the relationship between the immune system, the brain, and behavior, and presents previouslyidenti?ed immune system abnormalities in ASD, speci?-cally addressing the role of cytokines in these aberrations.The roles and identi?cation of biomarkers are also addressed, particularly with respect to cytokine pro?les in ASD.
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