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Rethinking the New Deal in the Context of Wu Zhiying’s Philanthropy for Education in the Late Qing Dynasty
Pages: 50-62
Year: Issue:  6
Journal: Journal of Xiamen University(Arts & Social Sciences)

Keyword:  New Deal of the late Qing DynastyWU Zhi-yingphilanthropy for educationpower of legal institutionfactionalism in officialdom;
Abstract: The New Deal of the late Qing Dynasty included educational reforms,abolishment of the imperial examination system,and establishment new-style schools. Honoring his late father’s wishes,Wu Zhiying,a member of the nobility of Tongcheng,made donations to education and named Juyin Primary School after his father. His philanthropic acts,considered to be following the trend of the times,were supported by Zhou Fu,Viceroy of Liangjiang and Minister of Nanyang,but ran into strong opposition from his townsfolk who insisted that Wu adopt an heir to continue the family line. The opposition,a sign of the resurgence of the power of the patriarchal clan system,was backed by the Magistrate of Tongcheng County and by En Ming,the newly appointed Governor of Anhui. Consequently,Wu Zhiying’s philanthropy was obstructed,reflecting the power of the deep-seated legal institutions and patriarchal clan systems in Tongcheng and even in Anhui. The complicated factionalism in Anhui officialdom and the Qing imperial court cast uncertainty over Wu Zhiying’s philanthropy for education,and Juyin Primary School was established in a time of great upheavals in officialdom,such as the assassination of En Ming. These events indicated that the New Deal in the late Qing Dynasty,including the establishment of newstyle schools,was not only blocked by local forces,but also influenced by the factionalism in officialdom in the context of revolutionary waves.
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