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Epidemiology of febrile neutropenia in patients with hematological disease—a prospective multicentre survey in China
Author(s): 
Pages: 177-182
Year: Issue:  3
Journal: Chinese Journal of Hematology

Keyword:  FeverNeutropeniaHematologic diseases;
Abstract: Objective To investigate the incidence,clinical and microbiological features of febrile,and risk factors during neutropenia periods in patients with hematological diseases.Methods From October 20,2014 to March 20,2015,consecutive patients who had hematological diseases and developed neutropenia during hospitalization were enrolled in the prospective,multicenter and observational study.Results A total of 784 episodes of febrile occurred in 1 139 neutropenic patients with hematological diseases.The cumulative incidence of febrile was 81.9% at 21 days after neutropenia.Multivariate analysis suggested that central venous catheterization (P<0.001,HR=3.407,95% CI 2.276-4.496),gastrointestinal mucositis (P<0.001,HR=1 0.548,95% CI 3.245-28.576),previous exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics within 90 days (P<0.001,HR=3.582,95% CI 2.387-5.770) and duration of neutropenia >7 days (P<0.001,HR=4.194,95% CI 2.572-5.618) were correlated with higher incidence of febrile during neutropenia.With the increase of the risk factors,the incidence of febrile increased gradually (35.4%,69.2%,86.1%,95.6%,P<0.001).Of 784 febrile cases,253 (32.3%) were unknown origin,429 (54.7%) of clinical documented infections and 102 (13.0%) of microbiological documented infections.The most common sites of infection were pulmonary (49.5%),upper respiratory (16.0%),crissum (9.8%),blood stream (7.7%).The most common pathogens were gram-negative bacteria (44.54%),followed by gram-positive bacteria (37.99%) and fungi (17.47%).There was no significant difference in mortality rates between cases with febrile and cases without febrile (9.2% vs 4.8%,P=0.099).Multivariate analysis also suggested that >40 years old (P=0.047,HR=5.000,95% CI 0.853-28.013),hemodynamic instability (P=0.001,HR=13.185,95% CI 2.983-54.915),prior colonization or infection by resistant pathogens (P=0.005,HR=28.734,95% CI 2.921-313.744),blood stream infection (P=0.038,HR=9.715,95% CI 1.110-81.969) and pulmonary infection (P=0.031,HR=25.905,95% CI 1.381-507.006) were correlated with higher mortality rate in cases with febrile.Conclusions Febrile was the common complication during neutropenia periods in patients with hematological disease.There was different distribution of organisms in different sites of infection.Moreove,the duration of neutropenia >7 days,central venous catheterization,gastrointestinal mucositis and previous exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics within 90 days were the risk factors for the higher incidence of febrile.
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