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gu shi zhang fa li xi
Author(s): 
Pages: 35-36
Year: Issue:  2
Journal: Hunan Education

Abstract: 所谓章法,就是写作构思的条理与法度。就像今人写议论文常有引论、本论、结论的套路一样,古诗的章法通常是起承转合。比如语文必修(三)里杜甫的《登高》一诗,首联“风、天、猿、渚、沙、鸟”六种意象均为登高所见,这是“起”,即扣题起笔,表达方式大多有规律可循,这里是概述,列举景物;颔联“无边落木萧萧下,不尽长江滚滚来”是“承”,承接起笔进行拓展,方式是具体描写;颈联“万里悲秋常作客,百年多病独登台”是“转”,由实转虚,由景到人,是叙说情状;尾联“艰难苦恨繁霜鬓,潦倒新停浊酒杯”是“合”,卒章显志,议论抒情。这首诗前两联描写深秋凄清与山河寂寥,后两联抒写人生潦倒与世事沧桑,这是以哀景衬哀情。
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