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Embeddedness and Conflict:The Dynamics and Mechanisms of U.S.Military Institution Reforms
Author(s): 
Pages: 66-92+158
Year: Issue:  1
Journal: World Economics and Politics

Keyword:  U.S.military institutionembeddednessinternational pressuremilitary doctrineinter-services rivalry;
Abstract: Throughout the processes of military institution reforms after World War II,we can find an interesting phenomenon.On the one hand,every reform movement was dedicated to promoting the power of Joint Chiefs of Staff while advancing the power of the United States Secretary of Defense.On the other hand,every reform movement was committed to changing the organizational forms of Army,Navy,Air Force and Marine Corps in order to push forward the integration of institutions and joint operations.To this phenomenon,the author develops an "Embeddedness-Conflict Theory" to explain the logic of U.S.military institution changes.This theory argues that the change of U.S.military institution is a process in which different institutions slowly embedded in each other.On the horizontal dimension,the institutions of Army,Navy,Air Forces and Marine Corps embed and integrate together.On the vertical dimension,the institutions of civilian and military embed and integrate together.According to "Embeddedness-Conflict Theory",the change of U.S.military institution is a process from peripheral embeddedness to central embeddedness.This institutional embeddedness process includes two core socialization mechanisms which are the mechanism of reembeddedness and the mechanism of institutionalization of power transformation.Moreover,the core thesis of the article is that the embeddedness degree of the U.S.military institution depends on the international pressure,military doctrine and inter-service rivalry.
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