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Regulations on Maritime Ports in the Song Dynasty
Author(s): 
Pages: 89-98
Year: Issue:  3
Journal: Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University (Philosophy and Social Sciences)

Keyword:  宋朝发舶港口舶政;
Abstract: 为便于对商船集中管理,有效获取市舶之利并加强海上禁防,宋朝从太宗时一度将发舶权限定在两浙市舶司,但行之未久.元丰三年八月起,始规定赴南蕃诸国贸易须从广州市舶司发舶,入日本高丽等国,则须从明州市舶司发舶,而回航住舶必须在原发舶州.这一制度,造成泉州等贸易港口发舶甚为不便.为适应海外贸易之形势,元祐编敕,亦将回航住舶港口须为原发舶港口之限,改为至合发舶州住舶.从此,发舶港口则以杭、明、泉、广诸州为主.南宋时,因两浙发舶渐集中于明州,发舶港口则为明、泉、广三州,后期则以泉、广二州为主.至于住舶港口,则因三市舶司争利,或为原发舶州,或为合发舶州,曾有变动,但最终当以原发舶州为制度,只是具体执行情况未尽如人意.对发舶和住舶港口之限定,表面上看似可集中管控市舶之利和海上禁防,但由此产生的对海上贸易之垄断,则又导致发舶港口萧条、舶利亏损,而商贾纷纷冲破政府对港口之限定,改入其它港口贸易.利弊交错,时好时坏,在矛盾中挣扎、维持,应是宋朝市舶之政的真实写照.
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